Sausage Manufacture : Principles and Practice - (31 Aug 2003)

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Samples were collected over a period of fourteen months from various locations where the processed meat was distributed to the outlets and before displaying and storage of the products. The collection was done according to the visits of the meat plant facilities, when the facilities were evaluated, meat transporting trucks were followed until they reached the last point of distribution, and the samples were collected accordingly.

However, the hazard analysis critical control points HACCP approach was used to investigate progress and procedures that contribute to microbial contamination, growth, survival, and to identify point where control could be applied to prevent, eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce to acceptable levels. According to HACCP system the processed meat product samples should be collected from different stages of processed meat production, but end products were collected from sales points. Consequently, only end products samples were collected.

Processed meat samples preparation Preparation of test samples for microbiological examination was done according to British Standard Institution BSI , The samples reached the laboratory in frozen condition and were stored immediately in deep freezer and always examined on the same day.

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Samples were thawed in refrigerator. Defrosting was done at ambient temperature until the sampleswere completely thawed. This operation was not exceeding 2 to 3 hours as recommended by BSI [9]. Opening of packages were carried out under aseptic conditions to avoid external contamination. Sterile scissor was used to open the sealed packaging materials. The samples were homogenized by mincing under aseptic conditions. Drips were put back before one second of blending process as indicated.

Conventional aerobic plate count method As described by Matuian and Peeler [10] the plate count method procedures for analysis of frozen, chilled, precooked, or prepared foods were done. The above method was applied also before counting different targeted bacteria. Coliforms samples were cultured on MacConkey agar, Staphylococcus aureus on Baired Parker agar medium, Bacillus cereus on mannitol egg yolk phenol red polymyxin agar medium, Clostridium perferinges on cooked meat medium, Salmonella species on Salmonella shigella agar media and Listeria monocytogenes on palcam agar medium respectively.

The stained slideswere evaluated microscopically either with immersion or without immersion. Gram positive showed blue colour and Gram-negative red colour. Spore stains method: The combinations of spore morphology were used for the identification of spores of Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus.

These organisms were divided into groups based on the shape, size and location of the spores within the vegetative cells. The microscope for stained spore obtained the organism determination. Clostridium perfringens was cultured on cooked meat medium, then blood haemolysis status, Gelatinasis, Lactose Egg Yolk Milk Agar, Motility status and spores position situation were conducted [15]. Gram-negative rod were determined microscopically for detection of E. Gram-positive cocci bacteria were determined microscopically for Staphylococcus aureus and gram-positive bacilli using tests of Catalase, Coagulase, Yellow pigment, anaerobic and aerobic mannitol utilization.

Determination of nitrite content in processed beef products Chemical analysis was conducted for forty samples to determine the levels of added sodium nitrite in meat. These samples were taken from the same samples that subjected for bacteriological tests targeted that forty five samples should be studied. This target determined based on the samples collection visits which are As recommended by BSI, [16] and Mohamed. For confirmation purposes, the test was duplicatedfor the entire samples.

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The test was applied only for the samples weight of more than grams. The samples were homogenized using meat mincer passed it at least twice and mixed. Ten grams of the sample was weighted, and transferred into the conical flask. The flasks with contents were heated for 15 min in boiling water bath and repeatedly shaken. The flask and its contents were allowed to cool at room temperature then 2 ml of solution 1 and 2 ml ofsolution II were added successively and mixed thoroughly after each addition.

Solution 1 wasprepared by dissolving of gram of potassium ferrocyanidetrihydrate in one liter distilled water. Solution II was prepared by adding gram of zinc acetate dehydrate and 30 ml glacial acetic acid to ml distilled water. The flask contents then poured into a ml one-mark volumetric flask, diluted to the mark with distilled water, and allowed to stand for 30 minutes at room temperature.

The supernatant liquid was transferred carefully and filtered through the fluted filter paper to obtain a clear solution. Test modification In addition, of filtration using fluted filter, a centrifugation step for one minute was added, and the results showed highly clearance supernatant solution. Colour measurement Less than 25 ml of aliquot portion of the filtrate was transferred into a ml one-mark volumetric flask-using pipette, and distilled water was added to obtain a volume of about 60 ml.

The flask was mixed and the solution was left for 5 minutes at room temperature in the dark. The absorbance of the solution was measured at a wavelength of nm in a 1 cm cell using the spectrophotometer. Calculation Nitrite content expressed in milligrams of sodium nitrite per kilogram, the calculation was done using the following formula:. V: is the volume in milliliters, of the aliquot portion of the filtrate taken for the photometric determination. Study results were displayed by use of excels and power point of Microsoft Corporation [18].

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Meat Factories staff awareness evaluation A questionnaire was designed and circulated among the workers to determine their level of awareness of meat safety and good hygienic practices. Items on the questionnaire included the fundamentals of processed meat contamination and cross contamination; preventive measures and food safety control activities. A total of short questionnaires were completed on site during working hours.

Note: In addition to the general evaluation, an intensive analysis was done for each factory as an individual case study. Nine case studies were developed. Though the recognition of the bacterial significance at each CCP is highly required to develop the necessary preventive and controls measures to ensure the processed meats safety and quality. To identify the impact of bacterial contamination of each step during processing the samples should be collected from the processing line and tested according to standards [19]. The study revealed that there was unusual high degree of contamination of targeted processed beef products in all different meat factories, which is greater than acceptable levels in all products.

The numberof microorganism was estimated and expressed as agreed by Heinz and Hautzinger; Ashton [2,21]. The range of a viable count of beef sausages product, minced beef, beef burger kofta products showed high levels of contamination in ranges more than 2. Normal range is 10 3 to 10 4 organisms per gram as mentioned by Heinz and Hautzinger; Ashton [2,21] who stated that it is quite normal and unavoidable to find bacterial counts of viable count of the order of several thousand per cm 2 on meat surfaces in commercial slaughtering and meat handling. However, viable count numbers exceeding , per gram 10 5 per cm 2 on fresh meat are not acceptable.

However, European Commission Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures estimate the infectious dose range to be from 0. Thus the detected range has clear implications on public health. Six from seven targeted food borne illness bacteria E.

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It is worth to mention that, the severity of the biological hazards associated with meat ranged into three categories depending on the hazards effects. Bacillus cereus; Clostridium perfringens; and Staphylococcus aureus infection are considered as moderate, direct, limited spread, and death rarely occurs. Salmonella enterica typhimurium; Eschericha coli; Shigella; and Listeria monocytogenes infection are considered as moderate, direct, potentially extensive spread, death or serious sequence can occur.

Salmonella enterica subspecies Typhi infection is considered as sever, and direct. The higher contamination level by E.

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Despite E. The result showed that Certain strains are enteropathogenic and represent food born infection, and it can be used as an indicator organism of faecal contamination from raw material or during processing, the same method was followed in my previous study in AlKadaro abattoir [26]. The most unusual result was the presence of E. Coli in cooked smoked ready to eat mortadella product and the total viable count of E. Coli on mortadella product was found more than the infective dose less than 10 microorganisms per gram was in This unexpected contamination might have beenoccurred either due to insufficient cooking temperature or after smoking.

In various levels, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the most processed beef products sampled Figure 2.

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With regard to the potentiality of Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, it is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and warm blooded animals [25,27]. Usually, the symptoms of staphylococcal intoxication appear when consuming food contains a toxin of less than 1.


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  • This toxin level is reached when Staphylococcus aureus populations exceeds 10 5 per gram. However, the study showed that the viable count of S. Such contamination level is considered hazardous since meat products might not be thermally treated to the degree that is capable of inactivating the heat resistance of enterotoxins which is commonly encountered in this bacterium species. Foodborne illness caused by S.

    Due to the long heat treatment and the low a w achieved by the extenders, mortadella product is consider shelf-stable products at moderate ambient temperature and may be stored without refrigeration [2]. However, the study showed that; 7. Salmonella contamination mostly indicated poor hygienic practices, which can enter the food from the raw materials or from meat processing handlers.

    It was estimated that 10 5 per gram of Salmonella bacteria are required in ingested food to cause Salmonellosis.

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